A Collection of Resources Related to Covenants

"Covenants are a category of proposed changes to Bitcoin’s consensus rules that would allow a script to prevent an authorized spender from spending to certain other scripts."

A Collection of Resources Related to Covenants
  • The following is a collection of resources related to covenants, aggregated and maintained by Robin Linus from ZeroSync. Follow his repository for the latest version of the collection.
A collection of resources related to covenants
A collection of resources related to covenants. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets.

Covenant-enabling Bitcoin Features

Properties of Covenants

  • Granularity: Which transaction fields can be defined by the covenant?
  • Overhead: How many bytes are required per TX?
  • Simplicity: How complex is the implementation and the usability?
  • Status: Is there a BIP? PR? Reviews? Signet? Testnet? Signals? Merged?
  • Recursion: Can the covenant be applied endlessly to itself?
  • Use cases: For which applications is the covenant the optimal solution?


Comparisons to CTV

Projects based on covenants

CTV Activation - Pros and Cons


  • "Covenants have been discussed for more than 6 years."
  • "There is strong consensus that Bitcoin should support covenants."
  • "CTV is the most conservative approach to enable covenants."
  • "The BIP was finalized over two years ago."
  • "The code is well tested and reviewed."
  • "People are testing vaults and other covenants live on the CTV signet."
  • "There are no objections against CTV on the code level."
  • "For 5 months there has been a 5.5 BTC bug bounty program funded by community members."
  • "Many community members support the activation of CTV."


  • "The strongest technical argument against bip119 is: since we have to do some soft fork for covenants let’s activate full-featured covenants right away instead of causing multiple forks with overlapping features."
  • "The most likely alternative seems to be TXHASH + CSFS. It combines Eltoo fans with ctv fans in a way that makes technical sense, it satisfies those who want more complex covenants going forward, the conversational well around it is less poisoned. The main downside is that it uses a few more bytes. The work that needs to be done to get it in safely can be overcome with effort."
  • "However, nobody is working on it. There's no BIP yet. No review. Not even remotely a PR."
  • "The number of bitfields in TXHASH is high, so the limiting factor would be writing a large number of both tests and arguing that any possible permutation of those bitfields does not lead to some resource exhaustion attack on some inputs."
  • "It would take years to activate it."

GitHub Repo